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The Bailiwick of Jersey, or Jersey (/drzi/ JUR-zee; Jèrriais: Jèrri [ri]), is another name for the island

A self-governing island nation and British Crown Dependency, [12][13][14] is located close to the coast of northwest located 23 kilometers (14 miles) away from the Normandy Cotentin Peninsula.[18] The main island of Jersey plus a few nearby uninhabited rocks and islands, make up the Bailiwick.[19]
succeeded to the throne of England in 1066. Jersey remained devoted to the English Crown even after Normandy was lost to the English kings in the 13th century and the ducal title was ceded to France, even though it never joined the Kingdom of England. Between that time and the end of the Napoleonic battles, Jersey was frequently invaded and on the front lines of Anglo-French battles, which prompted the building of fortifications like Mont Orgueil Castle and a lucrative smuggling trade. Nazi Germany attacked the island during World War II, and it was under its control for five years. The date of the island’s liberation, May 9, 1945, is currently recognized as the nation’s day.[20]

Jersey is an autonomous parliamentary democracy with its own judicial, financial, and legal systems[7] and the right to self-determination. It is governed by a constitutional monarchy.[21] Jersey is not a part of the United Kingdom; its constitutional relationship is with the Crown.[22][23][24] The Lieutenant Governor stands in for the head of state, the British monarch, while the Chief Minister represents the civil head, the president of the States, and the head of the judiciary. The UK Government is in charge of Jersey’s defense and foreign representation, as well as other policy areas including nationality legislation, yet Jersey nonetheless maintains a distinct international character.[25]

The island’s financial services sector is significant and accounts for 40% of its GVA.[6] The island’s usage of English as its major language and the Pound Sterling as its reserve currency are clear signs of British cultural influence. Driving on the left, having access to British television and newspapers, having a school curriculum that mirrors that of England[26], and the prevalence of British sports, such as cricket, are all additional examples of similarities with British culture.[27] The island also has a strong Norman-French culture, including the use of standard French in legal proceedings Jèrriais, a historic dialect of the Norman languag). The island and its neighboring islands in the Bailiwick of Guernsey have strong cultural ties and friendly competition. The people of Jersey have been referred to as a country.[28][29][30]

Name
Article focus: Jersey’s name
The Antonine Itinerary refers to the Channel Islands as Sarnia, Caesarea, Barsa, Silia, and Andium, although Jersey cannot be explicitly named because none of these names directly translate to the current names.[31] Since William Camden’s Britannia[32] the term Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey (and in its French counterpart Césarée), and it is still used in organization and institution names today. The colony of New Jersey was likewise given the Latin name Caesarea under the name Nova Caesarea.[33][34]

Jersey
Jersey

Ancient people used the names Andium, Agna, and Augia.[35][36]

According to numerous theories put out by academics, the names Jersey and Jèrri originate from the Old Norse words jr (meaning “earth”), jarl (meaning “earl”), or maybe Geirr (thus Geirrsey, or “Geirr’s Island”).[37] An island is indicated by the suffix “-ey” (as in Guernsey or Surtsey)[38][39].

History
like La Hougue Bie are examples of places where people have resided on the island since at least 12000 BCE. Numerous areas on the island have remains of towns from the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age.[40]

Roman influence has been demonstrated through archaeology, particularly at Les Landes.[41] Between the fifth and sixth centuries CE, immigrants from Brittany brought Christianity to the island.Helier, the island’s patron saint, resided at the Hermitage on L’Islet (now Elizabeth Castle) in the sixth century. According to legend, after being decapitated by pirates, Helier raised his head and walked to the shore.[43]

Vikings ravaged the island in the ninth century, and William Longsword annexed it to Normandy in 933.[44]: 22 The island was still a part of the Norman realm in 1066, when Duke William the Conqueror was crowned King of England. The island continued to belong to the English crown even after Normandy was given back to the French monarch in 1204, despite never becoming part of England.[42]: 25It is conventional wisdom that Jersey’s self-government derives from King John’s Constitutions, however this is debatable.[44]: 25 The island did, however, continue to adhere to Norman traditions and regulations. The King also appointed a Warden (who is now the Lieutenant-Governor) and a Bailiff. Warfare between England and France under the reign of the English was shown by the construction of a military fortification at Mont Orgueil.[42]: 25-8

Islanders embraced the Protestant faith as a result of the break between the Church of England and the Vatican during the Tudor era. French exiles arrived to the island during the reign of Elizabeth and introduced severe Calvinism, which remained the dominant religion until 1617.[42] Islanders crossed the North Atlantic in the late 16th century to take part in the Newfoundland fisheries.[45] King Charles II of England awarded Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, bailiff and governor, a sizable gift of land in the American colonies between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he instantly dubbed New Jersey, as payment for assistance provided to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s. It is currently a state in the US.[46][47]

festivities of Liberation Day in Jersey on May 9, 2012
The island of Bermuda experienced a food scarcity in 1769, which sparked the Corn Riots, an uprising that took place on September 28. At their meeting in Elizabeth Castle, the States resolved to approach the King for assistance. The Code of 1771, which eliminated the Royal Court’s authority to enact laws without the States, was the result of the Crown’s demand for improvements to the island’s government in 1771.[42] During the American Revolutionary War in 1781, a French force attacked the island and occupied St. Helier before being routed at the Battle of Jersey by Major Peirson’s army.[48]

Under General Don,[49] the road system was improved, two railroad lines were built, the transportation system to England was improved, and new piers and harbors were built in St. Helier.[42] Due to the expansion of the island’s tourism business and the immigration of thousands of English citizens, the island’s culture began to become more anglicized. were bitter rivals in island politics as the balance of power shifted more and more from the Crown to the States.[42] The French writer Victor Hugo resided in Jersey in the 1850s, but after being exiled for disgracing the Queen, he relocated to Guernsey.[42]

Of the 50,000 people living in Jersey at the time of the Second World War, 6,500 voluntarily left the island for the UK.[50] Germany seized Jersey from July 1 through May 9, 1945, when Germany finally capitulated.[51] During this time, the Germans built numerous fortresses utilizing imported slave labor from numerous nations occupied by or at war with Germany.[52] Food on the island became sparse after 1944 as a result of the D-Day invasion, which disrupted French supply. Red Cross supplies and word of the success of the Allied offensive in Europe were sent to the island aboard the SS Vega. Norman Le Brocq, a communist activist, and the Jersey Communist Party, whose communist philosophy called for building a “United Front,” established a resistance group during the Nazi occupation, which gave rise to the Jersey Democratic Movement.[53] One of the last areas of Europe to be freed was the Channel Islands. Liberation Square hosts events on May 9 in honor of the island’s liberation day. Following Liberation, the States underwent reform, adopting universal suffrage and being completely democratically elected. Since its freedom, the island’s population has increased and new sectors, particularly the banking sector, have been introduced.[42]

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